Secret societies are activated in Mexico: they are marginal groups, even within the Mexican right, which are not able to carry out a country project nor do they have an echo in the popular sectors. But they are fanatical leagues and they are frustrated, they consider experts. Latent, risk of attacks and other violent acts
The arrival of Andrés Manuel López Obrador to the Presidency of the Republic reactivated the cells of the secret societies of the Mexican extreme right. They are groups without support in the popular sectors and they are almost alone, but they are dangerous because they are frustrated and could carry out attacks, selective attacks, and violent acts of provocation.
In the reflection, two of the greatest specialists in the study of the Mexican right and its secret societies coincide, separately: Fernando Manuel González González and Édgar González Ruiz.
They explain that these organizations were never completely dismantled, not even because some became government when they became entrenched in the structures of the six-year terms of Vicente Fox and Felipe Calderón. But now they reorganize against what they consider the “establishment of communism” in Mexico.
It does not matter that the Mexican government has no intention of establishing some type of socialism or communism and that, in reality, it is akin to free enterprise, the free market, and only seeks to defend certain national interests and fight corruption so that capitalism works efficiently.
Fernando Manuel González González, a doctor in educational sciences from the Sorbonne University (Paris, France) and researcher at the Institute of Social Research of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), explains that reasoning matters little to these groups when they have an “organizing principle. ” In this case, it is AMLO (Andrés Manuel López Obrador). The president himself is the one who brings them together, it is his reason for being.
For these groups, the current president of the Republic should never have reached the ownership of the Executive Power and they consider that he only succeeded thanks to an international Judeo-Masonic communist plot. They drink from visions from the Cold War times and even earlier ones.
It is not only about companies such as the El Yunque National Organization or Los Tecos, with roots dating back 1 century. There are others whose names are not known but are loose and could generate violence.
Fernando González has lines of research in social actors and processes and is one of the greatest specialists in the study of Catholic secret societies and other sectors of the Mexican right. It stands out that López Obrador came to power with broad popular support that, to a large extent, remains.
It is paradoxical that this can be dangerous, since –explains the researcher– more than one frustrated fanatic or one of the groups of this extreme right can decide to take action.
El Yunque National Organization, in force since 1953
As they cannot generate or organize a dissatisfied mass or, much less, a rebellion, they can carry out an attack or provoke violent acts
It is explained: since they cannot generate and organize a dissatisfied mass, much less a rebellion, they can carry out an attack or provoke violent events.
Edgar González Ruiz, a teacher in philosophy and author –among other books– of Cruces y sombra. Profiles of conservatism in Latin America (2006), El MURO. Memories and testimonies (BUAP, 2003) and The clergy in arms. Catholic militarism in Latin America (FIM, 2007), explains that ultra-Catholic movements today are limited by the secularization of society itself.
And others, of a Nazi or neo-Nazi style “never prospered; there were outbreaks ”. They do not have the ability to convince other people, but they are so fanatical that they can commit violent acts. “Of course, you can organize three or four and do whatever you want; but from there to that they become a movement, no “.
Those who could see their supporters increase in the medium term are the open right, those that act publicly and whose main struggle is through the political-electoral system. As an example are the National Action Party (PAN), the Solidarity Meeting Party (PES) or the organization of Felipe Calderón, México Libre.
On the political-ideological spectrum, the right is less diverse than the left. However, there are also certain irreconcilable currents that, therefore, one should speak of “rights” rather than a single monolithic position, explains Fernando Manuel González.
Vicente Fox led the Yunque and the DHIAC to the federal government structures
In this regard, Édgar González Ruiz points out that right-wing positions are found, to a greater or lesser extent, in all the options of the political-electoral system. He points out that he even participates in the current federal government. The case of the PES, an ally of the president, and the embedding of characters such as Manuel Espino, a member of the secret society of El Yunque, placed at the head of the Federal Protection Service that is in charge of the security of the country’s strategic facilities stand out.
In other words, the radical, confessional right is not only in opposition. It is also the government. The characters of the secret societies are entrenched in movements such as the National Anti-AMLO Front (Frenaaa) but, above all, in other institutions with the organic life of another type, such as the Employers’ Confederation of the Mexican Republic (Coparmex), the PAN, private and public educational institutions, state governments, and even the federal government. The foregoing does not mean that within these instances it is even known about the existence of such organizations or that they agree with them.
With Felipe Calderón, the secret societies consolidated their presence in the public administration
—How do you explain the presence of Manuel Espino in the government of Andrés Manuel López Obrador? He is a militant character from secret societies such as del Yunque and the DHIAC (Integral Human Development) – Fernando Manuel González is asked.
—It is explained because Morena [National Regeneration Movement, the president’s party], to a large extent, is a conglomeration of grasshoppers, of “converted” people, opportunists. The fiction is to believe that Morena is a homogeneous left group. Its leader plays, at least, on four levels: on the one hand, he is a kind of Protestant pastor who moralizes; on the other hand, he is the head of a faction; on the other hand, he is president of the Republic and on the other hand, he is a leader who intends to bring together the most heterogeneous characters such as those linked even directly to the ultra-right.
Regarding the same fact, González Ruiz considers that these characters fit into the current government because it also has a conservative, prohibitive aspect. Left-right political geographies were disrupted in Mexico and in the world. Now in some right-wing formations, they give up defending religious elements, for example. And some leftist formations focus on social justice but adopt right-wing values such as the rejection of abortion, also as an example.
On the other hand, from the right that is in the frontal opposition, there are pressure groups that seek to agglutinate a movement. This is the case of Frenaaa, whose formal and visible leadership falls to Gilberto Lozano, a business executive from Monterrey with a jury suit against everything that smells left of him since the death of businessman Eugenio Garza Sada at the hands of members of the Communist League 23 of September 1973. He, then 20 years old, attended the funerals and witnessed when the business elite confronted President Luis Echeverría, blamed them for the murder, and threw him out of the pantheon.
Evangelical Christianity, a new actor on the Mexican right
In Frenaaa “everyone fits”
The most recent manifestation of the Frenaaa took place on Saturday, November 21, when it gathered a contingent that could not overflow the Angel of Independence roundabout but that its main formal leader, Gilberto Lozano, estimated at 450 thousand attendees. Against all evidence, in each action reported up to 10 times more attendees than those estimated by the authorities. A week ago he decided to lift the sit-in he was holding in the Zócalo and, amidst mockery, he had to accept that he could not make the president resign before November 30, as he had promised.
Last Saturday, November 28, Gilberto Lozano recorded a video in which he said he had created a trust to assassinate the president and his family. He said that if “something more than a scratch” happened to him, a “well-paid” elite group would automatically act to kill “everyone he had to kill.” And that he had already detected the houses of everyone who surrounds the president.
Jaime Sandoval is one of Frenaaa’s spokespersons. He is one of the three authorized to speak on behalf of the movement, along with Lozano himself and José Gerardo Villarreal. He says that neo-Nazi movements do have a place in the movement and that they are even welcome. Only that they must adhere to three principles. The first of these is the rejection of violence. “We are one hundred percent peaceful,” he says. The other two are acting according to the Constitution and “respecting all ideologies.”
Emphasize that Frenaaa does not want to hurt anyone. Not the president. They just want “to go away.” In fact, it is the only claim. They are unable to articulate a political program or a national project.
“Everything comes together in demanding the resignation of López, but there are many groups that have their own particular demands. Finally, everything comes together in the person responsible for all this, which is López Obrador, because he has not known how to govern. It’s like we don’t have a president. Everything has been done steamed, decisions that have come to harm society in general. Frenaaa demands the resignation of the president for his ineptitude. “
Speech from the Cold War era
“Everything comes together in demanding the resignation of López because he has not known how to govern. It’s like we don’t have a president. Frenaaa demands the resignation of the president due to his ineptitude “
—The current federal government is not yet 2 years old. Are they asking for his resignation when the country suffered 5 six-year periods without economic growth and with high levels of violence? Why precisely they oppose this government and not the previous ones? He is asked.
—Why the resignation of President Andrés Manuel López Obrador is so blunt, because everyone must know that we were deceived as a people. He never mentioned in his entire campaign that, without counting the 18 years that he has been chasing the Presidency, the Fourth Transformation consisted of becoming a socialist country.
—But it guarantees private property, megaprojects that favor capital continue, there are no nationalizations… where is socialism?
—They are attached to the Sao Paulo Forum and if you review their agenda and the points to follow, then you will realize that everything that López Obrador is doing is very advanced, turning our country into a Chavista country. All the guidelines of that forum go in the same direction: National Guard, eliminate the military body, have a single command, gender ideology, destroy institutions … The truth is that you only need to look at other countries and see how they are destroyed. At the time they removed Hugo Chávez [in Venezuela], but they made the mistake of not having made the necessary adjustments in the law and he had the opportunity to return and they never removed him again, he remained in power until his death which is when he is replaced by [Nicolás] Maduro. It took Bolivia 19 years to remove its dictatorship and it was movements of this type that managed to put pressure.
Religious images accompany all the manifestations of Frenaaa. They claim slogans from the time of the Cristeros and the Cold War. In López Obrador, they see Plutarco Elías Calles, the Soviet Union, Fidel Castro and Hugo Chávez. All in one.
The devil, communism, freemasonry and the Jews. All in one person
Frenaaa sees in López Obrador Plutarco Elías Calles, the Soviet Union, Fidel Castro and Hugo Chávez. All in one
Frenaaa is about to say that López Obrador is a dictator, “which is not the case; He is a very authoritarian guy but he is not a dictator, ”explains Fernando González, author, among other books, by Marcial Maciel. The Legionaries of Christ: testimonies and unpublished documents (Tusquets, 2010). Furthermore, “it would be very serious” if these rights could overthrow a president who came through democratic elections.
He warns that these groups that could take action are “too marginal” even in far-right organizations. But they exist. He cites the cases of the appearance of neo-Nazi groups in 2015 among the ranks of the PAN in Jalisco, Guanajuato and the State of Mexico.
“In Guadalajara, they were quickly neutralized and apologized for their Nazi affiliation. In the State of Mexico, the matter remained much more ambiguous, as in León [Guanajuato], which is one of the Yunque territories. So there are panista phil-Nazi drifts, but they are marginal. “
He explains that now in the Frenaaa conglomerate, groups from the extreme right converge with a part of the business sector. While some advocate a coup, others are betting on winning the midterm elections next year.
The latter supports the Frenaaa protests, but in reality, their sights are set on winning 200 of the 300 electoral districts that will be in dispute in 2021.
For Édgar González Ruiz, Frenaaa is an expression of the Mexican business sector, in dispute with President López Obrador. He considers that the ideological dispute is not the bottom line, even if it is strident. It is a power struggle waged by a group of businessmen, in addition, in order not to lose privileges that they consider at risk.
Today all rights are acting. Not only the ultra nor the one that ends in secret societies, explains Fernando Manuel González. In the PAN itself, which has a democratic tradition right, it also maintains the authoritarian cadres that infiltrated from El Yunque and from the extreme right of Christian democracy. “The panorama is extraordinarily complicated that it would only let us talk about the rights.”
– Are there possibilities that all the rights are united in a single front in Mexico? He is asked.
– There is someone who is a fundamental agglutination and who has dedicated himself to cultivating that and who is the President of the Republic. At the moment when he unites them into conservatives, fifís, my enemies, etc.… a whole conglomerate of people who have different positions, well, what better unifier than López Obrador.
Explain that the president has managed to personalize the political debate. People end up defining themselves in front of him and not in front of projects. Frenaaa’s speech is therefore very basic. It focuses on whether López Obrador is crazy, for example.
And they cannot see that López Obrador does not have a socialist project. In an obvious distortion of reality, they place it as part of a conspiracy of international communism that, moreover, is Judeo-Masonic.
“There is a long tradition of ideas that remain floating.” Since the 1920s – explains Fernando González – the government of Plutarco Elías Calles was seen by Catholics as a satellite of Russian socialism. “They accuse him of being directed directly from Red Square.”
In the 1930s Carlos Cuesta Gallardo, El Güero, leader of the Tecos, imposed on the imagination of these secret groups the idea of the great Judeo-Masonic communist plot. He took it up from a book on the Revolution and the Jacobins of Augustin Barruel published in 1797 ( Memory to serve the history of Jacobinism ).
In fact, Fernando González dedicates a chapter to this in his most recent book Fractured Secrets. Prints of conspiratorial Catholicism in Mexico (Herder, 2019). This idea survives. Even in the 1960s, some of these groups accused the head of the Catholic Church, then Paul VI, of being part of this plot, since this pope continued and concluded the work of the Second Vatican Council that promoted relations among the world’s religions and placed the poor as the center of the Gospel.
Also in the 1930s, the idea of communist education took hold when President Lázaro Cárdenas del Río promoted socialist education. The 1950s and 1960s came and, with them, the Cuban Revolution and other revolutions in the world. And the Mexican extreme right accused rulers like López Mateos of being part of the communist conspiracy, although it was evident to the whole world that these rulers ended the guerrilla, that yes of socialist or communist affiliation.
Gilberto Lozano, visible leader of Frenaa, executive of the Monterrey business community
The same anti-Masonic, anti-Jewish and anti-communist discourse is recycled, with new actors. Before Cuba, now Venezuela
So it is natural for these groups today to maintain that López Obrador is moving towards communism even though there is no evidence whatsoever. “[The speech] is recycled now with a novelty: Venezuela. Cuba is behind Venezuela and this is the model of a certain Andrés Manuel López Obrador. We are before a Castro communist and a Chavista communist. Since the 1920s, you can see this whole process of ideological recycling ”.
“But it is a reading very far from reality.” López Obrador does not lead to communism. On the contrary, it is making capitalism viable – it is provoked.
-Does not matter. The problem with plots is having a single organizing principle of the complexity of reality. Once one decides what the organizing principle is, the complexity of the real is simplified to the maximum. Thus the “great Judeo-Masonic communist plot worldwide” organizes the complexity of the reality of these groups. The seriousness of the analysis does not matter. What matters is that the analysis is created and that they act accordingly, that they organize secret societies and that they send their hosts to infiltrate that society that is contaminated with socialism, communism, or freemasonry. The plot does not support uncertainty.
—And that is enough to formulate a country project?
-Not at all. They have a part of the project that is economic, especially those of Coparmex: [Gustavo] De Hoyos and company. They can contribute, they have a controversial point regarding Morena’s economic project, but the others have no project, almost their only project is for this guy to get out, which seems dangerous to me as an ideology.
Manuel González points out that now the religious right in Mexico is not only of the Catholic confession. Some of the Protestant churches have made a strong entrance into Latin America. It is “very clear” that they have settled in the Mexican political-ideological spectrum.
It refers to the case of the PES, with Pastor Hugo Éric Flores and, above all, with Pastor Arturo Farela, a friend of the president. In other words, it is a novelty that the right-wing in Mexico is no longer associated exclusively with the Catholic confession, but also now a Christian evangelist.
Neo-Nazis, “welcome” to the Frenaa
New clothes from the right
González Ruiz explains that there is currently a two-pronged process. On the one hand, societies are more secular and less willing to abide by religious recommendations. But, on the other hand, they do adopt ideological positions that are imposed on them from the public power.
It exemplifies what happened during the 2 PAN administration (Vicente Fox: 2000-2006, and Felipe Calderón: 2006-2012), which promoted an oppositional agenda to the secular State, “to the extent that abortion cannot yet be decriminalized in our society due to nonconformity and pressure from religious groups; therein lies the force of conservative ideas. And not always from Catholic conservatism, which for me has always been the expression of the right-wing and conservatism, but also of evangelical groups that also oppose abortion and sexual freedoms.
—The other historical component of the right is the business sector. It is still the same?
—Yes, although there are already business sectors that do not share conservative ideas. If we take the positions of liberals and conservatives in their terms, liberals defend individual rights, the decision-making capacity of people. Conservatives oppose this, they defend prohibitions against abortion, against drugs, against the free exercise of sexuality.
Today even conservative ideas come from unsuspected sectors. According to González Ruiz, they are in movements or people who assume themselves to be left-wing or liberal.
López Obrador, flanked by the former president of the PAN, Martínez Cáceres (left) and Manuel Espino (right). The latter, a member of El Yunque and today head of the Federal Protection Service
There are those who say that monuments and works of art do not matter because they are only stones or plaster. What they are saying is that culture does not matter, the human being does not matter. That is deeply conservative
“There are people who go out to destroy a monument, a work of art and say: ‘That doesn’t matter, it’s stones, paper or plaster.’ Deep down, what he is telling you is that culture does not matter, the human being as such does not matter, his biological functions matter as well as animals and plants. To that extent, it is how they conceive the human being, which seems terrible and deeply conservative to me. “
Do you consider that today Mexico has a liberal or conservative government?
-We do not know. There are contrasting aspects. Not only in the government, but in the various political forces and in societies. I think that in Mexico City liberal values are more deeply rooted, the defense of freedoms. The federal government has been concerned about social or social justice policies, but there are cases like abortion where no progress has been made.
Nationalist Front of Mexico, “heirs of fascism and Nazism”
Without ambiguity, “heirs” of fascism and national-socialism in Mexico are recognized. They cannot call themselves fascists or Nazis – they say – because those movements had specific characteristics for Italians and Germans, respectively.
Juan Carlos López Lee is the national coordinator of the Nationalist Front of Mexico (FNM), formally constituted with just over 5,000 members. It is not a secret society. On the contrary, it is an open organization with a public proposal and that has carried out political demonstrations, including protests against migrant families that cross Mexico to the United States.
López Lee assures that the FNM does not qualify as being from the right or from the left, since it has “the best” of each political position. Violence is not viable at the moment, he explains. Its revolution is in a peaceful phase and consists of placing its members in the greatest number of leadership positions in both the public and private sectors.
He says that the FNM represents the third way , different from the liberal capitalism-materialist communism dichotomy.
“We are a transversal movement. We agree with the right-wing on issues such as the defense of moral values, the defense of life, of identity. And, on the contrary, we agree with the left on economic issues, such as social justice. We are not liberal, we do not agree with free trade. We are a movement that opposes the ideology of globalization because it is a cause of both the left and the right. We want an independent, sovereign Mexico. We feed on people who come from both the left and the right. “
It assumes that Mexico is nourished by two great civilizations“ on the one hand, the pre-Hispanic world, which ranges from the Aztecs to the Mayans and, on the other hand, what is the Hispanic world. We believe that national identity is based on this idea and we agree with José Vasconcelos in his first stage ”.
He considers that the first political theory was the liberalism of the French Revolution. He sought to exalt the individual. Then came the second, communism that claims social class.
“Then the third theory is fascism, Nazism, which tries to answer this with the issue of race. Many of the writings, for example by Vasconcelos, are based on the issue of race because they try to answer that question that in Mexico has always been difficult to address because we do not have a unique race. We believe that these three things have to be overcome and see the nation as a community. “
“Are they fascists?”
—No, because fascism is a movement of the Italians. It is part of the heritage of the Roman Empire, the exaltation they made of the glorious times of Rome. We are not Italians, we are Mexicans. We are nationalists, not fascists, although we do adhere to the currents that are heirs to fascism, national-socialism, which is the third theory and that were a reaction against savage liberal capitalism and against materialist communism. In that sense, we believe that we still have to fill that space.
“But they do share principles.”
—Yes, because what all nationalisms seek is to rediscover that framework in which the homeland had a primordial glory and, in our case, if we talk about having the first civilization, in this case, it was a pre-Hispanic civilization, then a second civilization which is that of the Colony. Now we have to talk about a third. We have to overcome the previous two. We have to have a country that has consolidated its national consciousness and that recovers the best of these two historical periods.
– What form of government do you think Mexico should have?
“Within our movement, there are people who agree with the monarchy and there are those who agree with the republic .” It is not what matters right now, but a government where the best are in charge of the public function, who have enough capacity and talent to be there.
—Finally they support totalitarianism, whether under a monarchy or a republic.
—If we speak of totalitarianism as the dictatorship of a single person who makes and decides, we are not totalitarians. But if we speak of a totalitarian State that we see as an organic whole, where all spheres of national life are connected, there we can say that we ascribe to a totalitarian doctrine. The country has to live in all its components. Both the workers and the peasants, the entrepreneurs. Men and women have a place in society and if we play that place correctly we can lead the country to development.
“The laws we have right now are based on French positivism. We must replace them with laws based on uses and customs because the problem we have in Mexico is that the law is a dead letter, it is not observed or practiced; there is no authority and anarchy reigns everywhere. “
—The transformation they propose could only be done vertically. That is, they need to take power.
“The key is how to get to power.” And there are several ways. We have to combine various forms of struggle. When we talk about participation within politics, within political parties, in elections, we do so because it is a form of agitation, of raising awareness. And because if we manage to embed people in key positions, we can gradually insert some of these ideas into what is the democratic political system and into the legislative agenda of our country. That is one way. The other is that construction and awareness work has to be done outside of politics to bring together this idealistic minority. In the end, all revolutions are made by minorities. And at a certain moment to be able to launch a more direct proposal towards the seizure of power. At this time, the problems we have in Mexico prevent us from going directly to a proposal for the seizure of power. They also prevent us from forming a political party.
– Have you considered the taking of it through armed struggle?
– Yes, we have talked about this, but when we talk about the armed struggle we have to talk about who is going to give us the weapons and who has them. All these leftist groups and Marxists come with the discourse of the 1960s and Che Guevara under the context of the bipolar world. The point is that neither in Mexico nor in any part of America, outside the United States or Canada, are weapons produced or are weapons accessible. It is a dangerous subject because if we talk about wanting an armed struggle, then here the only ones who have weapons are criminals, organized crime. Any armed struggle can be contaminated with the interests of drug trafficking, which is what happened in Colombia. We must be very careful with terms such as the armed struggle. At this time, As long as crime prevails as it is, it should not be resorted to.
– What position do you have before the government of Andrés Manuel López Obrador?
—It is a democratically elected government, which emanates from a totally legal election. There have been some positives. But the country is not on the right track, since what [the government] seeks is to return to the PRI [Institutional Revolutionary Party] of the 1970s. Current needs are not being responded to and there are also a whole series of groups that are behind and next to the López Obrador government that is totally harmful to Mexico, like all these feminist and radical left movements that undermine the bases of national identity. Until now the president has not been able to get rid of these people and is allowing, like other political parties, all these groups of international origin to conquer the institutions. The López Obrador government is a continuity of the governments that come from Calderón and Peña Nieto and we can see that in foreign policy, in the creation of the National Guard, which has already been cooking since the time of Peña Nieto. Likewise, the issue of the militarization of ports, which is a process that will take time because the personnel of the Secretariat of the Navy is not trained for that, but in the future, they want to militarize that sector. All this is an agenda that comes from before. López Obrador is giving continuity to an international project that he seeks is to undermine national sovereignty.
—The president’s speech is that now Mexico defends its sovereignty and does not receive orders from foreign authorities …
—It is true that within the government of Andrés Manuel López Obrador there are people who have a certain patriotism, but if this type of international agenda continues to flourish here in Mexico, what happened in the time of Felipe Calderón could happen: that the officials of the United States embassy The United States checked foreign passengers at Mexican airports and they decided who entered and who did not enter Mexico. Gradually, our country is being integrated into the security agenda of the United States and the project of globalization. The López Obrador government is a continuity of all that, it is not a rupture. And there are things in which we go from bad to worse. We are an opposition to the current political system, derived from liberalism, modernity, and globalization, we are not an opposition to the government or a person.
“Are they integrated into the Frenaaa?”
“No, we are a different movement.” We have existed since 2008. We called ourselves Organization for the National Will and we have had the name Nationalist Front of Mexico since 2015. Frenaaa is a movement created to hit López Obrador and we are not interested in hitting any government, we want to build a new order in Mexico. When AMLO leaves, Frenaaa will no longer have any reason to fight. Likewise, when all the groups that are with Andrés Manuel see that things stayed the same, they will be disenchanted and will necessarily have to look here, because just as in the times of Mussolini and Hitler there was wear and tear when really come strong, we will be there, already with enough capacity to become an alternative for the seizure of power.